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Getting old Librarians and the Disaster of Succession Making plans at Fourah Bay School Library




The problem of succession making plans has been mentioned in different library fora. The Educational Libraries Team did a revealing SWOT research all over its presentation on the Seminar on Library Capability Construction Interventions for Fulfillment of the Millennium Building Targets (MDGs) in West Africa on the Erata Lodge, East Legon, Ghana in June 2009. Although a number of strengths had been recognized (together with proper calibre of personnel, certified execs, skilled personnel, organised constructions, influential place of College Librarians as a part of best control and the provision of formal legitimate committees/organisations/associations), a hanging weak point amongst 8 others used to be that of the ‘getting old librarians’. The Library at Fourah Bay School (FBC), College of Sierra Leone, isn’t an exception. A vital proportion of senior library personnel would retire between 2018 & 2026, and simplest the implementation of an competitive succession making plans coverage would salvage the crucial state of affairs. It’s believed that Alexander the Nice by no means had a strong succession plan and the sour outcome used to be the disintegration of the far-flung empire he struggled to construct.


Succession making plans is set changing personnel who will sooner or later depart an organisation on account of a number of components together with dying, switch, resignation, termination, dismissal, retirement and so on. In keeping with Blakesley, it “would possibly an increasing number of be seen as simply part of strategic making plans processes, as we make a decision what will have to be completed and what may also be given up, and tips on how to reallocate, retrain and realign the individuals who stay in our organizations” (2011 p. 34). The Biblical injunction (Paul to Timothy) is apt: “And the issues that thou hast heard of me amongst many witnesses, the similar dedicate thou to devoted males, who shall be capable to educate others additionally.”

(2 Timothy 2:2, King James Model).

Angela Bridgland (1999) opined that folks and positions will have to be systematically reviewed to make sure that the strategic plan of an organisation is applied. Although there’s a lot communicate in regards to the “graying of our career” (Blakesley, 2011, p. 32), we’re reminded that “it is not information that child boomers are attaining retirement age” (Bermes, p. 66). In 2001, all over the joint convention organised via the Status Convention of African College Libraries, Western Space (SCAULWA) and the West African Library Affiliation (WALA) in Accra, Ghana the writer of this text commented at the speedy decline within the selection of legitimate librarians in Sierra Leone. The placement in Fourah Bay School Library is a microcosm of the nationwide drawback. {Many professional} librarians within the nation have retired from the career. A few of these dynamic personalities or family names come with Mrs. Gladys Jusu-Sheriff, Mrs. Deanna Thomas (past due), Mrs. Gloria Dillsworth, Mrs. Olatungie Campbell, Mrs. Marian Lisk, Mr. Victor Coker, Mrs. Alice Malamah-Thomas, Mr. A.N.T. Deen (past due), Mrs. Yeama Lucilda Hunter, Mrs. Abator Thomas, Prof. Magnus John and so on. This has left an excessively broad hole within the career and the present legitimate librarians are only a few and some distance between.


There are 3 primary classes of personnel at FBC Library, specifically, junior, senior supporting and senior.

Senior Body of workers

Possibly the problem of succession making plans may be very crucial when one considers the share of senior library personnel (educational and technical) that might retire inside the subsequent couple of years. It will have to be famous that the retirement age for senior participants of personnel is sixty-five years.

If 5 out of the seven participants of personnel (this is 71.4%) will retire in 8 years (between 2018 and 2026), or six (85.8%) will depart the machine between 2018 and 2030), the strategic significance of succession making plans at Fourah Bay School Library can’t be over emphasized. The present head has just a little over a decade and a part to set the home so as prior to his go out, equipped he remains till the top of his personal tenure in 2033 (after a carrier of 41 years).

The primary to retire in 2018 would have given a complete of forty-four years of carrier to the School and is recently the top of the Periodicals Phase within the Library. He’s unanimously dubbed ‘the Encyclopaedia of Fourah Bay School Library’.

Possibly, essentially the most destructive loss is also the present E book Binder whose substitute is now being actively mentioned on the Institute of Library, Data and Verbal exchange Research (INSLICS) at Fourah Bay School the place he teaches all of the conservation classes. Who will substitute him when he retires in 2023 after giving forty-five years of carrier to the Bindery? This is certainly the query. He has already given 20 years of his profession serving as a Section -Time Lecturer at INSLICS and there’s rarely some other tertiary establishment in Sierra Leone with a useful bindery unit. Not one of the different 9 participants of personnel within the bindery at Fourah Bay School possess any qualification in conservation. That very same yr (2023) would additionally witness the top of forty-five years of carrier of the top of any other distinctive phase, the Sierra Leone Assortment, which paperwork an integral a part of the nationwide bibliography of Sierra Leone. He’s strategically situated to coach attainable librarians all over his closing six years as he’s going to graduate with the M.Phil in Library, Archive & Data Research in 2017.

He’s going to be adopted via the present head of the Cataloguing Division who would have served for thirty 4 years on his retirement in 2025, the similar selection of years the top of the Factor Table/Move Division would have given when her carrier results in 2026.

The dynamism of a senior feminine educational personnel is already obtrusive in the truth that she recently deputises the top of the Cataloguing phase and supervises the American Shelf, the place she organises many significant outreach programmes. She could be thought to be an excessively dynamic public family members officer who has a lot more to give a contribution in her forty-five years of carrier that may lead to 2030.

Senior Supporting personnel

Body of workers on this class are due for retirement on the age of sixty. Sadly, this class lacks the corresponding selection of personnel to interchange those that will sooner or later retire from the senior cadre. Actually, a male personnel is due for retirement on the finish of September this yr and he’s recently serving his 2nd yr past the age of retirement.

Thankfully, a feminine personnel on this class not too long ago graduated with the M.Phil in Library and Data Science from INSLICS and this personnel is recently the President of the Sierra Leone Affiliation of Archivists, Librarians and Data Execs (SLAALIP) the place she is serving the primary time period, which might lead to 2017. The M.Phil level would sooner or later catapult her to the senior educational personnel class. A 2nd feminine personnel has a lot to provide the Library till 2032. She has finished a number of programmes at INSLICS, together with the undergraduate level, publish graduate degree and is recently doing her M.Phil. The chance additionally exists for the Administrative Assistant to pursue a profession in Librarianship. One of the crucial male personnel has been recognized as a possible chief as he has already finished his postgraduate degree in Library and Data Research and would sign up for the M.Phil in the similar self-discipline within the 2016/17 consultation. With two extra many years within the library, there’s all a definite chance that he might also have a possibility to move all of the library. Some other feminine personnel (an administrative personnel) additionally has the way to pursue a profession in Librarianship and upward thrust to key library positions inside the subsequent many years.

Junior personnel

The twenty one participants of personnel on this class shape the majority of the library personnel. Since a library’s maximum vital useful resource is its personnel, substantial assets and effort will have to be concentrated to empower those personnel who’re operating with very little certificate. Body of workers on this class retire on the age of sixty years, giving the library control a possibility to spot those who can be inspired to additional enhance themselves and input the tertiary establishment. Even supposing those twenty one personnel have little or no or no important {qualifications}, the way forward for Fourah Bay School Library squarely lies within the arms of this attainable staff.

A feminine personnel is recently enrolled at INSLICS and she or he would optimistically entire her Bachelor of Arts with Honours level all over the 2017/18 consultation. Upon finishing touch, the anticipated place to be assumed via a feminine personnel is Senior Library Assistant and with additional coaching at INSLICS, she’s going to sooner or later transfer to the senior educational cadre. A male personnel is recently enrolled in a degree programme on the Institute of Library, Data and Verbal exchange Research, Fourah Bay School and would optimistically graduate on the finish of the 2017/18 educational yr. He would sooner or later be upgraded to the Library Assistant place. Some other male personnel has already won admission on the Institute of Public Management and Control (IPAM) to learn for a bachelor’s level in Public Sector Control. Upon finishing touch, he’s going to transfer to the Senior Supporting Class as a Trainee Librarian. This sort of place will give him the chance to sooner or later sign up for a Submit Graduate Degree in Librarianship direction at INSLICS. Sadly, a feminine personnel that finished the Certificates in Library Research all over the 2014/15 consultation died on 19th January 2016.

8 junior personnel will retire within the 2040s and 5 within the 2030s and the carrier of any other 8 will finish between 2019 and 2029. A number of personnel were inspired to take or retake the West African Senior Certificates Exam to qualify them to sign up on level programmes at INSLICS or different departments. Some other attainable personnel simply acquired her 5 credit that may permit her achieve acceptance within the College of Sierra Leone.


1. The Want for Extra Body of workers to sign up on the Institute of Library, Data & Verbal exchange Research

The Institute of Library Research (INSLIBS) used to be established in 1989 as an arm of the College of Sierra Leone. INSLIBS become part of Fourah Bay School in 2000 when it used to be merged with the Division of Mass Verbal exchange and assumed its new identify, the Institute of Library, Data & Verbal exchange Research (INSLICS).

The placement of librarian at Fourah Bay School used to be upgraded from the extent of Senior Lecturer to the extent of Professor at a gathering of the School Council in October 1961 (Jones 1977). This professorial standing used to be won all over the tenure of the expatriate librarian, Mr. Michael Jollife (1961-1971) after whom the varsity library used to be named.

INSLICS recently gives 5 programmes in Library and data Research: Grasp of Philosophy, Submit Graduate Degree, Bachelor of Arts with honours, Degree and the Particular Certificates. All educational personnel, librarians at Fourah Bay School will have to make the most of the present programmes introduced on the institute with a purpose to boost up their legitimate building and achieve an important positions within the library machine.

a. The Masters Stage/MPhil. in Librarianship

The purchase of the masters level in librarianship will have to now not be downplayed via librarians if they’re to effectively climb the pro ladder within the college library machine. Extra librarians possess masters levels in different disciplines instead of librarianship and that is very unhealthy to the pro building of the libraries inside the college. Those {qualifications} are essential in a single’s building as a certified librarian since senior librarians within the College of Sierra Leone are educational personnel. Moreover, there’s dire want for extra topic librarians inside the college if the desires of researchers will have to be met. Then again, this trail is hampered when those {qualifications} are acquired with out due attention to the MA or M.Phil from the Institute of Library, Data and Verbal exchange Research (INSLICS) or somewhere else. Two senior participants of personnel finished the M. Phil programme at INSLICS inside the closing six years and two are recently operating on corrections recognized via their exterior examiners. The Trainee Librarian registered for the MPhil all over the 2015/16 consultation. The pro building of the library can be enhanced if different participants of personnel are inspired to sign up for pro library {qualifications}.

b. The Postgraduate Degree in Librarianship

This above qualification is essential for personnel who’re desirous of pursuing librarianship as a profession however without a formal or legitimate qualification within the box. Possibly this trail is then again now not essential for participants of personnel with the undergraduate level in librarianship. Any personnel within the college with a primary level in any other box instead of librarianship will have to be inspired to sign up to procure this primary legitimate qualification.

c. The Undergraduate Stage in Librarianship

The reason for the lifestyles of a degree, post-graduate degree and masters programmes within the library institute within the early 1990s with out the undergraduate level in librarianship continues to be now not transparent to the researcher, since he passionately believes that it used to be partially accountable for the stagnation of many library personnel inside the machine after the degree programme. 4 personnel participants at Fourah Bay School Library have finished this programme for the reason that first set graduated in 2004. There may be recently one feminine personnel on this programme. Extra will have to be inspired to pursue this qualification, which might lend a hand them to develop within the machine.

d. The Degree in Librarianship

This programme is designed to coach para-professional personnel and has given the chance to those that have labored for an excessively lengthy duration to be thought to be for the senior supporting place. Extra participants of personnel will have to be inspired to sign up for this essential para-professional qualification.

e. The Certificates in Librarianship

Although the above programme used to be discontinued 2000 because of the dearth of personnel, it’s been made over and is recently been introduced as a Particular Certificates. Some personnel from other libraries have benefitted from this coaching however extra will have to be inspired to make the most of this coaching.

2. The advent of a PhD programme in Librarianship

The significance of a doctoral programme in Librarianship is lengthy late and an absolute necessity. There are recently two Affiliate Professors within the College of Sierra Leone, one every on the Institute of Public Management and Control (IPAM) and the Institute of Library, Data and Verbal exchange Research (INSLICS). The advent of one of these programme at INSLICS would additional strengthen the capability of personnel in all of the college, a possibility Fourah Bay School Library personnel, amongst others, would make the most of. The Mass Verbal exchange division at INSLICS has already offered its doctoral programme with just one Professor.

3. The want to Appoint a College Librarian

There may be want to appoint a College Librarian to co-ordinate library actions inside the College of Sierra Leone. This sort of extremely profiled authentic would actively constitute the library career within the College Courtroom, a frame the place the voice of the librarian is recently indirectly heard. Just one College Librarian has been officially appointed and she or he left the rustic when the rebels attacked the town of Freetown in 1997. She by no means returned to the establishment and there’s an pressing want to appoint any other.

4. Club {of professional} associations

Skilled library associations are a will have to for pro librarians. Many librarians within the College of Sierra Leone are participants of the Sierra Leone Affiliation of Archivists, Librarians and Data Execs (SLAALIP). Then again, club of world legitimate library associations will have to be inspired. Library personnel within the College of Sierra Leone will have to establish themselves as participants of world library associations since such club complements legitimate building. In 2016 as an example, Fourah Bay School Library become a member of the African Library and Data Associations & Establishments (AfLIA).

5. Implications of recent Generation

Librarians are recently on a crossroad and will have to embody the brand new era to justify their lifestyles on this data age when the gathering control emphasis isn’t on possession however get right of entry to to data. Those that are nonetheless conventional librarians may just justifiably be classed beneath the class of Endangered Species. Individuals of personnel will have to make sure that they don’t seem to be simply laptop literate however laptop gifted and will have to be capable to disseminate data in any layout. Librarians within the College of Sierra Leone basically, and Fourah Bay School specifically, “will have to pay a significantly top worth in conserving conventional products and services and embracing the brand new technological advances” (Harding, 2002, p. 9). The college management will have to recognize the centrality of its educational nerve centre and equip it accordingly.

6. Growth of library positions

It’s obtrusive that the expansion of the coed inhabitants within the College of Sierra Leone has now not observed a corresponding expansion within the selection of personnel. At FBC library specifically, extra participants of personnel might be discovered at the personnel record within the 1970s when the coed inhabitants used to be about 5 hundred, than the present checklist, when there are about seven thousand scholars.

If participants of personnel are being inspired to review to arrest the impact of retirement, defection, switch, dying and so on., extra positions will have to be created in any respect ranges to make sure their upward mobility since promotion is in line with a number of components together with {qualifications}, efficiency and availability of established positions.


The continual substitute of personnel and management coaching/building are an important at Fourah Bay School Library, College of Sierra Leone. With out strategically making plans tips on how to garner assets to equip current personnel with the essential talents had to fill inevitable gaps, the succession making plans will proceed to pose a major problem in Fourah Bay School Library. Since luck with out successor is failure, a big step in succession making plans is to identify vacancies that can most probably be to be had, periodically. Moreover, there will have to be a strategic attention of the way by which those recognized vacancies might be crammed. The implication is then a sensible attention of the expectancies within the activity and an identity of the abilities exhibited via the prevailing personnel to permit control to tailor coaching actions.


Bermes, Emily Osbun. (2011). “Succession Making plans for the Small Trade.” Trade Other people. 3(2), pp. 60-71.

Blakesley, Elizabeth. (2011). “Making plans for the longer term: assets to probe for succession making plans”. Library Management and Control. 25(2), pp. 29-36.

Bridgland, Angela. (1999). “To Fill, or Learn how to Fill – That’s the Query: Succession Making plans and Management Building in Educational Libraries.” Australian Educational and Analysis Libraries. 30(1).

Harding, Oliver L.T. (2002). “The African College librarian within the Data Age”. SCAULWA E-newsletter. 3(2), pp. 8-11.

Jones, Eldred. Tribute delivered at a memorial carrier and requiem mass held for the past due Michael Jolliffe on the Sacred Middle Cathedral, Freetown, on Wednesday, 22nd June, 1977.

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Appeals Court docket Says Uber and Lyft Will have to Deal with California Drivers as Workers



OAKLAND, Calif. — Uber and Lyft should deal with their California drivers as workers, offering them with the advantages and wages they’re entitled to underneath state hard work regulation, a California appeals courtroom dominated Thursday.

The verdict issues to rising settlement between the state courts and lawmakers that gig employees don’t have the independence vital for them to be thought to be contractors.

The ruling through the California First District Court docket of Enchantment is the results of a lawsuit introduced through California’s legal professional basic and town legal professionals of San Francisco, Los Angeles and San Diego. The state and town businesses sued the ride-hailing firms in Would possibly to implement a brand new state hard work regulation that aimed to make gig employees into workers.

After a decrease courtroom dominated that Uber and Lyft should in an instant comply and rent the drivers, the corporations fought again. They threatened to close down totally in California and appealed the verdict, successful a last-minute reprieve from the appellate courtroom whilst it thought to be the case.

Uber and Lyft didn’t in an instant reply to requests for remark Thursday night time, however are not likely to threaten a equivalent shutdown. The appellate courtroom required them to expand plans to make use of drivers in case the ruling didn’t cross of their want.

“When violation of statutory place of work protections takes position on an enormous scale, as alleged on this case, it reasons public hurt over and above the non-public hobby of any given particular person,” the courtroom wrote in its resolution on Thursday.

State officers have argued that the corporations should agree to the regulation, referred to as Meeting Invoice 5, in order that employees can download unwell go away, additional time and different advantages — wishes that experience turn out to be particularly urgent right through the pandemic.

“Each and every different employer follows the regulation,” Matthew Goldberg, deputy town legal professional with the San Francisco Town Lawyer’s Administrative center, advised the appeals courtroom right through arguments final week. “That is bucks and wages and cash this is being stolen from drivers through distinctive feature of the misclassification.”

However Uber and Lyft have argued that they’re era firms, no longer transportation companies. Using drivers would drive them to lift fares and rent just a small fraction of the drivers who recently paintings for them, they stated.

The corporations are sponsoring a poll initiative to exempt them from the regulation and make allowance them to proceed classifying drivers as impartial contractors. The courtroom gave Uber and Lyft a grace duration, and if the poll initiative is a success, it might throw the ruling into query.

This can be a growing tale. Test again for updates.

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F.T.C. Determination on Pursuing Fb Antitrust Case Is Stated to Be Close to



WASHINGTON — The Federal Business Fee is transferring nearer to a call about submitting an antitrust lawsuit in opposition to Fb for its marketplace energy in social networking, consistent with two other people with wisdom of the company’s talks.

The 5 individuals of the F.T.C. met on Thursday to speak about its investigation into Fb and whether or not the corporate had purchased smaller competitors to handle a monopoly, the folk stated. The company has ready 3 paperwork about Fb — one on its attainable antitrust violations, some other examining the corporate’s economics, and a 3rd assessing the hazards of litigation — which were circulated amongst F.T.C. leaders, the folk stated.

No choice has been made on a case, they stated. The F.T.C. commissioners should vote sooner than any case is pursued.

Lawmakers and policymakers in Washington were ramping up antitrust movements in opposition to the most important era firms, continuously in a bipartisan effort. On Tuesday, the Justice Division filed a lawsuit in opposition to Google accusing it of illegally keeping up its monopoly energy in seek and seek promoting, the primary such criminal motion in opposition to a tech corporate in twenty years. Two weeks in the past, the Area Judiciary Committee additionally advisable taking motion to get a divorce the massive tech platforms, together with Fb, Amazon, Apple and Google.

Fb and the F.T.C. declined to remark. The Washington Put up previous reported that the F.T.C. met at the Fb investigation on Thursday.

This can be a creating tale and will probably be up to date.

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Trump Nonetheless Miles Forward of Biden in Social Media Engagement



President Trump has made his battle on Giant Tech a central piece of his re-election marketing campaign. For months, he has accused Fb and Twitter of making an attempt to rig the election by means of silencing complaint about his rival, former Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr., and referred to as for brand new laws to rein in Silicon Valley giants.

However Mr. Trump is a long way from muzzled on-line. In truth, in fresh weeks, he has widened his social media engagement lead over Mr. Biden.

Up to now 30 days, Mr. Trump’s authentic Fb web page has gotten 130 million reactions, stocks and feedback, when compared with 18 million for Mr. Biden’s web page, consistent with knowledge from CrowdTangle, a Fb-owned knowledge platform. This is considerably better than the engagement hole for the previous 30-day duration, when Mr. Trump were given 86 million interactions to Mr. Biden’s 10 million.

Mr. Trump trounced Mr. Biden on Instagram, too, getting 60 million likes and feedback on his posts prior to now 30 days, just about two times as many as Mr. Biden’s 34 million. Within the previous 30-day duration, Mr. Trump were given 39 million likes and feedback, whilst Mr. Biden were given 13 million.

Mr. Trump additionally a long way outpaced Mr. Biden on YouTube, getting 207 million perspectives on his movies within the closing 30 days to Mr. Biden’s 29 million, consistent with SocialBlade, a knowledge company that tracks video efficiency. (SocialBlade’s knowledge, which incorporates perspectives on YouTube advertisements in addition to unpaid movies, is fairly other than CrowdTangle’s Fb and Instagram engagement knowledge, which counts most commonly engagement on unpaid posts.)

Social media efficiency isn’t a proxy for electoral good fortune, after all, and Mr. Trump’s marketing campaign would more than likely wish to be main in swing-state polls than on Fb and YouTube. Engagement knowledge additionally does now not seize what number of people view or click on on posts, best how robust a response they elicit. And Fb has argued that knowledge about “succeed in” — the quantity of people that in truth see a given put up of their feeds — presentations a extra correct image of what’s in style at the platform. (It does now not, on the other hand, make this knowledge publicly to be had.)

But it surely comes in handy to have a look at the president’s claims of partisan bias by means of tech firms in mild of his sky-high engagement on those self same firms’ platforms, as it hints on the nature of his court cases. His arguments don’t seem to be the pleas of an underdog being silenced, however the threats of a celeb who desires to be allowed to stay his megaphone.

Probably the most president’s posts in fresh weeks have incorporated incorrect information about mail-in vote casting, doubtful claims about Covid-19 and false and unproven allegations of corruption towards Mr. Biden. A number of of his posts were taken down or had fact-checking labels carried out to them. However those measures don’t seem to have dented his account’s general engagement.

The president’s most powerful week on Fb and Instagram got here all over his early October hospitalization for Covid-19, when well-wishers flooded his pages with supportive likes and feedback. On YouTube, his highest day got here this week, when he took out plenty of advertisements about accusations towards Mr. Biden’s son Hunter, printed by means of The New York Publish. (The New York Instances has now not independently showed The Publish’s reporting, and Mr. Biden’s marketing campaign has brushed aside the allegations as “Russian disinformation.”) The ones advertisements carried out nicely for Mr. Trump, and his channel were given just about 22 million perspectives on Tuesday on my own.

One shiny spot for Mr. Biden is Twitter, the place the previous vp has been acting nicely of overdue. In step with Axios, which cited knowledge from the media intelligence corporate Conviva, Mr. Biden has overtaken Mr. Trump in fresh days in relation to the typical selection of retweets and replies on his posts. (According to-post averages could also be one social media contest that the president’s nonstop tweeting dependancy does now not lend a hand him win.)

Every other platform the place Mr. Biden has crushed Mr. Trump? TV. His the city corridor on ABC closing week were given a larger target market than Mr. Trump’s head-to-head NBC the city corridor, consistent with Nielsen.

And given Mr. Biden’s considerably smaller social media target market, he’s punching above his weight. His Fb web page’s “interplay price” — a measure of engagement that takes under consideration what number of fans an account has — is lately greater than two times as excessive as Mr. Trump’s.

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