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Is TikTok a Excellent Purchase? It Is dependent upon What’s Integrated



Along with recreating TikTok’s algorithms, an American acquirer would additionally wish to paintings temporarily to maintain TikTok’s different precious asset: its writer tradition. As my colleague Taylor Lorenz has written, TikTok is house to a big, colourful group of ingenious skill, a few of whom make a full-time dwelling from the app. The ones persons are interested in TikTok partially since the platform offers them some way to achieve a mass target market. However they’re additionally interested in it as a result of TikTok has cultivated an charisma of cool thru promoting, placing partnerships with song gala’s and different common occasions, and internet hosting unique events for TikTok creators at business occasions like VidCon.

Already, Fb is reportedly seeking to poach common TikTok creators for Instagram Reels, its new TikTok clone, by means of dangling six-figure offers in entrance of them. And if TikTok is received by means of Microsoft — an organization no longer traditionally recognized for its formative years enchantment — creators may sense that it’s time to transport on.

TikTok may attempt to decrease the danger for an acquirer by means of placing multiyear unique offers with its hottest American creators, the best way that platforms like YouTube and Twitch have carried out. It will additionally boost up its plans to let common customers become profitable from the platform. However and not using a company grip on its A-list skill, TikTok’s acquirer gained’t be confident that the platform isn’t dropping its edge.

Hank Inexperienced, a YouTube celebrity and leader govt of the schooling corporate Complexly, who has greater than 600,000 fans on TikTok, mentioned {that a} TikTok acquisition may make creators extra skeptical of the corporate’s motives.

“One of the most issues about TikTok is that they’ve been in a position to make quite a lot of adjustments in point of fact rapid, and persons are open and receptive to that,” Mr. Inexperienced mentioned. “When you see that adjust as coming from outdoor the ecosystem, that may really feel like a overseas alternate.”

Most of the other people I spoke to agreed that even with the possible pitfalls and unresolved questions, the chance to shop for TikTok is a once-in-a-decade deal for the fitting acquirer. Well-liked, rising social networks are exceedingly uncommon, and TikTok has already made itself a fixture of American tradition in some way that few different apps ever have.

“TikTok is compelling, no longer simply on account of its massive and rising consumer base, but in addition on account of its platform doable to make bigger into e-commerce and livestreaming,” mentioned Connie Chan, a spouse on the mission capital company Andreessen Horowitz. “Video is an incredible approach to promote issues and quick movies are ideal for product discovery.”

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‘Perception Hacks’ and Other Potential Threats to the Election



In Georgia, a database that verifies voter signatures was locked up by Russian hackers in a ransomware attack that also dumped voters’ registration data online.

In California and Indiana, Russia’s most formidable state hackers, a unit linked to the Federal Security Service, or F.S.B., bored into local networks and hit some election systems, though it is still unclear why.

In Louisiana, the National Guard was called in to stop cyberattacks aimed at small government offices that employed tools previously seen only in attacks by North Korea.

And on Tuesday night, someone hacked the Trump campaign, defacing its website with a threatening message in broken English warning that there would be more to come.

None of these attacks amounted to much. But from the sprawling war room at United States Cyber Command to those monitoring the election at Facebook, Twitter, Google and Microsoft, experts are watching closely for more “perception hacks.” Those are smaller attacks that can be easily exaggerated into something bigger and potentially seized upon as evidence that the whole voting process is “rigged,” as President Trump has claimed it will be.

The phrase comes up every time Christopher Krebs, the Department of Homeland Security official responsible for making sure voting systems are secure, talks about the biggest vulnerabilities in this election. His worry is not a vast attack but a series of smaller ones, perhaps concentrated in swing states, whose effect is more psychological than real.

Perception hacks are just one of a range of issues occupying election officials and cybersecurity experts in the final days of voting — and their concerns will not end on Election Day.

One theory gaining ground inside American intelligence agencies is that the Russians, having made the point that they remain inside key American systems despite bolstered defenses and new offensive operations by Cyber Command, may sit out the next week — until it is clear whether the vote is close.

The Russian play, under this theory, would be to fan the flames of state-by-state election battles, generating or amplifying claims of fraud that would further undermine American confidence in the integrity of the election process.

The Iranians would continue their playbook, which American intelligence officials see as more akin to vandalism than serious hacking, filled with threats in mangled English.

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But American experts have warned local officials that come Nov. 3 the Iranians may seek to paralyze or deface the websites of secretaries of state, affecting the reporting of results, and create the impression of being inside the voting infrastructure even if they never were and the election results have not been compromised.

Here is a look at some of the potential threats and what has been learned so far in a year of behind-the-scenes cyberbattles.

Government officials are trying to assure voters that voting machines are hard to hack on a large scale: They are almost entirely offline. States and counties use their own systems, and the breadth and diversity of those systems, the argument goes, make it nearly impossible for a single attack to target all of them.

But that does not eliminate the risk. At the University of Michigan, J. Alex Halderman has turned his laboratory into an arcade of voting-machine vulnerabilities and found ways to create “attacks that can spread from machine to machine like a computer virus and silently change election outcomes.”

Others point out that no one needs to hack every state to cause havoc. In a tight election, an attacker could target Atlanta, Philadelphia, Detroit or Milwaukee and delay the reporting of results from an electoral battleground.

The other weak point in the diversity-as-security claim, election security experts say, is the constellation of contractors that support elections across multiple states and counties. “The claim that diversity is protecting the election is a logical fallacy,” said Harri Hursti, an election security consultant.

Mr. Hursti worries about a scenario in which ballot scanners could be reprogrammed to read a vote for Joseph R. Biden Jr. as a vote for Mr. Trump or vice versa.

“A single point of failure could compromise election infrastructure across multiple counties and states,” Mr. Hursti warned.

His concern is strictly cautionary, but not unheard-of. Not long after the 2016 election, a National Security Agency whistle-blower revealed that VR Systems, a Florida company that provided check-in software to multiple states, including critical swing states like Florida and North Carolina, was compromised by Russian hackers before the vote. There is no evidence they used that access to affect the final vote.

The constant drumbeat of cyberattacks and foreign interference has forced states to put safeguards in place. States have been working to print paper backups of voter registration data, and they have been phasing out machines that leave no paper backup.

Mr. Krebs said that next week about 92 percent of all votes cast would be “associated” with some kind of paper record, up significantly from four years ago.

But with the surge in mail-in ballots this year, machine voting will also diminish as a percentage of the total vote. So the vulnerabilities that the Homeland Security Department’s Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency is focused on are potential attacks on voter registration, verification and vote reporting systems, along with the computer networks of secretaries of state, or power outages at the polls.

Those kinds of attacks would not change the vote tallies. But, executed artfully enough, especially in battleground states or key districts within those states, they could be used to sow doubt about the legitimacy of the election.

Some officials still wonder if that was the motivation behind some of Russia’s 2016 interference, when hackers “scanned” the registration databases of all 50 states, breached systems in Arizona and Florida, and made an unusually noisy show of stealing voters’ registration data in Illinois but ultimately did nothing with it.

Many of those vulnerabilities have been patched, thanks to an aggressive campaign by the Homeland Security Department and the states. But voting is a local affair and vulnerabilities remain, as Gov. Ron DeSantis of Florida discovered when he went to vote early in Tallahassee, the state capital. Someone — the police arrested a 20-year-old from Naples, Fla. — had changed the governor’s address to West Palm Beach.

That is why there is so much concern about a Russian group called Energetic Bear. Over the years, the group, believed to be a unit of the F.S.B., has breached American power grids, water treatment plants, a nuclear power plant in Kansas and, more recently, web systems at San Francisco International Airport.

And starting in September, it began going into the systems of state and local governments. So far, intelligence officials say they have succeeded in breaching only two servers in California and Indiana.

The most imminent threat, officials say, is ransomware attacks that could freeze some part of the voting system and delay results.

It is a sign of how concerned the intelligence agencies and private industry are about ransomware that over the past month both Cyber Command and a group of companies led by Microsoft have been bringing down servers around the world linked to TrickBot, a set of tools used in some of the most sophisticated ransomware operations.

“This is all about disrupting TrickBot’s operations during peak election activity,” said Tom Burt, the Microsoft executive in charge of the operation.

But there is already evidence that the hackers behind TrickBot have shifted to new tools, according to Mandiant, a cybersecurity firm. Over the past month and a half, researchers discovered that the same people have been directing a spate of vicious new ransomware attacks that have taken American hospitals offline, just as coronavirus cases are spiking.

“They could use these same tools against whoever they want whether it’s the election or hospitals,” said Kimberly Goody, a cybercrime analyst at Mandiant.

A ransomware attack in Gainesville, Ga., locked up the voter signature verification systems last week, forcing poll workers to do things the old-fashioned way, pulling registration cards manually and eyeballing the signatures.

The attack, which does not appear to have been directed at the election but took election systems down as collateral damage, exposed continued weak spots in Georgia, a key battleground state.

Internal emails showed that the Georgia secretary of state’s office disabled two-factor authentication in recent weeks, after its election software was buckling under the deluge of early voters. Two-factor authentication, which keeps hackers from breaking into systems with one stolen password, has been key to the Homeland Security Department’s election security strategy, and in this case emails show that the secretary of state simply turned it off.

Mr. Trump has already promoted the idea that mail-in ballots will be riddled with fraud and has sought to use small glitches in the distribution and return of mail ballots as evidence that the system cannot be trusted if the result goes against him.

The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency issued a “public service announcement” recently about taking care to verify information before believing it or reposting it. But as some government officials concede, there is no remedy for a president who repeats unproven rumors and conspiracy theories — other than directly contradicting him.

“They have walked the line carefully,” said Senator Angus King, independent of Maine. “But the real test is coming.”

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Disinformation Strikes From Social Networks to Texts



Ultimate week, a political motion committee known as the American Ideas Venture unveiled a brand new video on Twitter falsely claiming that Democratic presidential nominee Joseph R. Biden Jr. supported intercourse adjustments for 8-year-olds.

Since Friday, a an identical video has additionally gave the impression on Fb as many as 100,000 instances — essentially in Michigan, a swing state within the Nov. three election.

What has been tougher to pinpoint is how extensively the video has been spreading via textual content messages.

Regardless that firms like Fb and Twitter have evolved equipment for monitoring and policing disinformation on their social networks, texting process is in large part a free-for-all that receives little scrutiny from tech firms and govt regulators.

“There is not any strategy to audit this,” stated Jacob Gursky, a analysis affiliate on the College of Texas at Austin. “Organizations are simply amassing mobile phone numbers from information agents and mass-texting folks.”

The video circulated in Michigan, Wisconsin and Pennsylvania as a part of a coordinated texting marketing campaign, in step with a learn about through researchers on the College of Texas at Austin. Over the weekend, it reached a reporter who covers on-line disinformation for the scoop website Protocol. The reporter had a Pennsylvania mobile phone quantity.

Twisting the which means of Mr. Biden’s statements all the way through a contemporary “the city corridor” match — which condemned discrimination towards kids who establish as transgender however didn’t cope with intercourse adjustments — the marketing campaign used to be a high-profile instance of increasingly more in style efforts to distribute disinformation via textual content messages.

“All the way through a contemporary the city corridor, Joe Biden counseled giving 8- to 10-year-olds intercourse exchange remedies,” the texts learn. “That is method too excessive for me. I will’t give a boost to him.”

The texts tracked through Mr. Gursky and his fellow researchers stated they had been despatched through the American Ideas Venture, however they referred to the group simplest as “the APP PAC.” The texts purport to reach from a “Democratic volunteer.”

The American Ideas Venture didn’t reply to a request for remark.

Knowledge on texting campaigns is tricky to return through. However Robokiller, an organization that blocks automatic telephone calls and texts, stated American citizens won 2.6 billion political textual content messages in September, a 400 % build up since June. The corporate estimated that since June, Republication-affiliated organizations have despatched kind of six instances extra messages than their Democratic opposite numbers.

The Texas researchers stated texting campaigns are partially a response to greater scrutiny on social media services and products. As Fb and Twitter have driven disinformation networks off their services and products, the networks have resurfaced on non-public texting apps like Sign, Telegram and WhatsApp, the place they are able to proceed function with out being monitored.

Non-public disinformation networks are prevalent in puts like India and Mexico, the researchers stated. However they’re changing into extra not unusual in positive portions of the USA, similar to southern Florida, the place apps like WhatsApp are in style.

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Fb, Google and Twitter C.E.O.s go back to Washington to protect their content material moderation.



For greater than twenty years, web corporations had been protected from legal responsibility for a lot of what their customers put up through a once-obscure rule referred to as Phase 230 of the Communications Decency Act. Now that defend — and the way web corporations reasonable content material on their websites — is being wondered through lawmakers on each side of the political aisle.

On Wednesday, the executive executives of Google, Fb and Twitter will testify prior to a Senate committee about their moderation practices.

The listening to, held through the Senate Committee on Trade, Science and Transportation, shall be a repeat efficiency prior to Congress for Sundar Pichai of Google, Mark Zuckerberg of Fb and Jack Dorsey of Twitter. However with the Nov. three election not up to every week away, the executives face further drive to regulate incorrect information with out exerting unfair affect at the vote casting procedure.

Despite the fact that the corporations are answerable for protective highbrow assets and rooting out violations of federal felony legislation, Phase 230 shields them from defamation complaints and different felony claims which may be pricey to combat.

The legislation, regarded as one of the crucial bedrock rules that allowed the economic web to flourish, was once meant to offer tech corporations extensive discretion over moderation, permitting them to set laws for what customers may just and may just now not put up on their websites. It was once intended as a sensible answer that will permit folks to specific themselves freely on-line, whilst maintaining corporations off the hook for each remark their customers made.

Republicans argue the corporations — Twitter, specifically — are being heavy-handed of their content material moderation and are unfairly silencing conservative voices. Democrats, on the other hand, argue the corporations aren’t doing sufficient to stay incorrect information and outright lies off their platforms.

In Would possibly, President Trump additionally issued an government order meant to strip the corporations of the felony protected harbor supplied through Phase 230, regardless that it was once now not transparent what authority the management must make that vary.

The listening to starts at 10 a.m. on Wednesday, and the executive executives are anticipated to take questions remotely from 26 senators. The listening to is anticipated to final a number of hours.

Mr. Dorsey is more likely to face the hardest wondering as a result of Twitter has been specifically competitive in its efforts to fact-check and take down posts that mislead customers in regards to the pandemic and the presidential election.

Closing week, Twitter blocked a hyperlink to a New York Put up article about Joseph R. Biden Jr.’s son, Hunter Biden, pronouncing that it violated corporate insurance policies in opposition to sharing private data and content material stolen through hackers. After an outcry from conservative leaders, Twitter walked again the verdict and allowed the hyperlink to be shared.

Mr. Dorsey and Mr. Zuckerberg are scheduled to testify once more on Nov. 17 in a Senate Judiciary Committee listening to that can focal point on Twitter and Fb’s selections to restrict the unfold of the New York Put up article. Fb took steps to scale back the unfold of the tale and stated it was once eligible for fact-checking, however was once now not as competitive as Twitter.

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